History of Loubès-Bernac

The archaeological map of Gaul concerning Lot-et-Garonne mentions the site of Bournizeaux. “At Les Bournizeaux, in an area where prehistoric (Neolithic) flint axes had already been found in 1958/59, the clearing of a piece of land made it possible to exhume eight Merovingian sarcophagi (confirming the name Uffer(t); one facing east,made of local limestone, consisted of a trapezoidal monolithic tank and a lid with a gable roof, decorated with large grooves. It contained six complete skeletons, red and black ceramic shards, and a loop (made of an alloy of lead, tin, silver, around an iron core) and its barb (made of iron). From the seven other sarcophagi, also facing east, in addition to bones, rough ceramic, iron nails, a bronze buckle and a fragment of a bronze buckle plate have been removed. »

The commune The commune of Loubès is the result of the merger of four former parishes: Saint-Pierre de Loubès, Saint-Martin de Montaillac, Notre-Dame de Bernac and Notre-Dame d’Uffer. March 1790, creation of the municipalities. It is in replacement of the Jurades that the municipalities were created, which took the name of General Council of the commune and no longer parish. The members elected by the richest owners of the commune became municipal officers. These elections took place on 14th March 1790 and lasted all day in Loubès. In July 1790 the new communes were formed. The commune of Loubès was first formed from the three known parishes, then, after reluctance, the section of Bernac finally joined the others, thus creating the commune of Loubès-et-Bernac. The parish of Bernac became a commune in 1790 and then merged with that of Loubès in 1827.

Churches The current commune of Loubès had four parishes: Saint-André de Théobon situated above the place called Les Faux, Notre-Dame d’Uffer, Saint-Pierre de Loubès and Saint-Martin de Montaillac. Le Pouillé d’Agen situates them all in the viscounty of Bézaume (churches from the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries which belonged to the archpriest of Bézaume and then of Saint-Foy la Grande). Church of Saint-Pierre de Loubès Toponymy: Account of 1326: Capella de Lubüs, Capella de Uferto et de Salguières(?) R Sancti Petri de Lubès. According to Valeri’s list: (1520) R. de Lubüs – R. Beati Marie de Pufferto – Sancti Andrée de Théobone and Monte Cailhato. It is reported to be very beautiful at its origins. In 1562, during the revolt of the Huguenots of Agenais, it was totally destroyed on the orders of the Lords of Theobon. Loubès had a Protestant temple in the upper part of the village, which was demolished by order of the Council of State on 7 March 1671. The church of Loubès was rebuilt on the ruins of the old one around 1671 and without possessing the beauties of the previous one ( It was large and beautiful on a cruciform plan with two chapels. The one that exists today is only a reduction on the remains of the old one. »).

Saint Andrew of Theobon Church It was located on a slight eminence above the village of Les Faux, which would have been a very important village before the Huguenot revolt. There would have been a town there that would have carried the name of Rohan. It may have been burned and destroyed in 1345 when the Earl of Derby passed through. For the church, it was completely razed to the ground in 1562 by the lord of Theobon. It was never rebuilt. Church of Uffer She would have been very beautiful. It was also razed in 1562 and rebuilt late (1700?). According to a legend, around this place (Capella de Ufferto and Salguières), at the beginning of the Christian era, there was an important city called “le Saint-Amant”. Saint-Martin de Montaillac Church It was totally ruined in 1562 and rebuilt at the end of the 17th century.

Church of Bernac Toponymy: according to the list of Valeri (1520) Rectorate of Bernaco. The Pouillé d’Agen places this church in the archpriest of Bézaume. It would be from the 13th century. The church of Notre-Dame-de- l’Assomption in Bernac dates from the Romanesque period, but it has undergone numerous restorations after the ravages of the Wars of Religion. The church of Bernac, of Romanesque origin, was completely rebuilt in the 15th century. This is why one can notice the presence of architectural elements of the flamboyant gothic style, such as the remarkable portal decorated with a coat of arms linked to Richard the Lionheart, son of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Like all the churches in the commune, this one was particularly affected by the Wars of Religion. It was burnt by the Protestants acting on the orders of the Lord of Theobon and was restored in the 17th century on the basis of its Romanesque foundations. This restoration was not easy because the Protestants tried to slow down the work. A local legend tells that in retaliation, dragons killed the Protestants of Bernac, who were then buried in the mound on which the church is built. The building consists of a rather wide nave with a barrel vault and an apse at the end. The choir is pierced by a triple arcature. On the façade of the bell tower-wall of this church there is a coat of arms. It is said to be that of the kings of England, for others that of the dukes of Aquitaine. It is identical to that of the Durfort Duras. It is possible that it is that of the Ségur, lords of Theobon.

Theobon Castle A stronghold during the Franco-English wars, it was ruined then restored at the end of the 15th century and played an important role during the wars of religion. It had to be completely rebuilt under Louis XIII. The old medieval fortress was rebuilt in the 16th century by the De Ségur family. It has six pavilions (towers) and a keep, a drawbridge at the entrance gate. It was a magnificent dwelling. The ceilings were frescoed. There were beautiful sculptures (chimneys) and the banister of the grand staircase, made of wrought iron, is still there. Unfortunately, during the Revolution, Paganel had the castle devastated and partly ruined (1793). Later, it was summarily repaired. In 1876, “it was demolished and replaced by a house of a different kind”. Here is an excerpt from a manuscript report from the beginning of the century: “Once flanked by six pavilions, crowned by a keep, defended by wide and deep moats that could be crossed by a drawbridge, the castle, although deprived of all its exterior ornaments and its mansard roofs with mansard roofs that were replaced by a flat roof, still offers an imposing appearance. The interior, once embellished with precious carvings and beautiful woodwork, is now in a very dilapidated state and has retained little trace of its former splendour. There is, however, a vestibule staircase with a superb wrought-iron banister and painted ceilings with moulded woodwork. The most remarkable subject, unfortunately well deteriorated, represents Phaeton on his chariot with overturned horses in extraordinary positions. Another ceiling, whose subject is difficult to determine, depicts a naked woman. On the second floor, which has become an attic as a result of the revolutionary devastation, there is a beautiful room that preserves traces of old woodwork and which is adorned with a magnificent carved stone fireplace with armor, the sides of which are remarkable for the ingenious arrangement of their compartments. “(It would be this chimney which would have been bought, dismantled and which would currently be in the U.S.A.).

The Lords of Theobon In 1291, Gaubert de Mayrac, Lord of Theobon, appears. In 1406 Gassion de Mayrac pays homage to the captal of Puychagut for Théobon (the lords of Puychagut had held the title of captal since 1086). The Ségur appeared during the 14th century as Lords of Puychagut. In 1475, Ysabeau de Mayrac, de Théobon, married Giron de Ségur, captal of Puychagut. At the beginning of the 16th century, Gaston de Ségur is appointed Grand Echanson of the King of France François I. This very wealthy lord had the ancient fortress of Théobon knocked down and built a magnificent castle in the Renaissance style. The Rochefort de Saint-Angel were then lords of Theobon. The castle was besieged by the royal troops in 1622, the Marquis of Theobon, having refused an agreement with the king, had been declared a rebel. Marie-Guyonne de Rochefort Théobon married Daniel Marie-Anne de Talleyrand-Périgord, Count of Grignols and Mauriac. The heirs of the latter kept the castle until about 1780; at this date, Théobon was sold to Mr. Benoît Barbe de Teyfond. Theobon was owned in 1843 by Sieur Albert, or d’Albert, a squire descendant of one of the Teyfond ladies. In the 16th century, Théobon was a barony, then under Louis XIII it was erected as a marquisate, a title which was kept until the Revolution.

The wash-house The Gallo-Romans already knew this source (which would have virtues?). Covered in the 18th century by a shed, it became a municipal wash-house.

The work Lou tramail, qu’es acò? Quite simply a job (plural “work” and not “works”), that is to say a job to be shoed. It is a device designed to hold large animals (cows, oxen) especially when shoeing. The shoeing work is an area with a very sturdy frame in which the animal is restrained by means of straps and belly straps. This equipment, witness to a way of life that has now disappeared, is still visible in our village, where it is referred to as “tramail”. It has not been used for 40 years. It was used for shoeing and foot care of cows, oxen, bulls, which were numerous before, in our communes…

Origin of the name of the commune The village of Loubès, originally a Gallo-Roman villa, is said to have been called Luperciacum, after a Roman character named Lupercius (the domain of Lupercius). From lupus,(wolf) the Latin u became or, and the p became b=> loub (Gascon root) and -ès (French infancy).

Origin of the localities After the 100-year war, the region was deserted, people had fled or died. Lords and abbots called for migrants. The first ones appeared around 1480 and the following ones came over several centuries because of plagues, famines and wars. These migrants left their names to surfaces of land that the lord gave them a new fiefdom thanks to a lease called tenement.

Puychagut It was one of the oldest castles in the region. The first mention we found of it is from the end of the 11th century, in the cartulary of the convent of N.D. De Saintes. The lord of Gardonne, Ebrard, together with his brother, Entregot de Puychagut, gave the church of Saint-Pierre de Coutures to the priory of Saint-Sylvain (in La Monzie) which was under the authority of N.D. De Saintes. A little later, still in agreement, the two brothers gave the church of Saint-Foy de Gardonne to the same priory, “to redeem the soul of their grandfather who had burned the church of Lamonzie, the convent and the whole village. » In the 13th century, the lord of Puychagut and two other lords, who jointly owned Puyguilhem, made a gift of it to the king and queen of England, apparently without compensation. (We do not know why, perhaps they were going on a crusade). The fortress was often besieged during the French-English wars (besieged by Lord Derby in 1345). At the end of the Hundred Years’ War, it belonged to the Ségur family and was suzerain of the neighbouring seigneuries. It was already in ruins and was not raised (dismantled in the 15th century).